Prática de atividade física e competência motora em crianças de baixo nível socioeconômico
TUDELA, Mariana Cardoso. Physical activity and motor competence in socioeconomically disadvantaged children.2016. 71 p. Dissertation (Master's Degree in Physical Activity Sciences) -School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 2016. Original version. The objectives of this study were a) to quantify the practice of physical activity during the weekdays and weekends and assess compliance with international guidelines, b) to measure indicators of motor competence
... motor competence and c) to verify the relationships between these variables in children of low socioeconomic status. The study included 234 children (44% girls) between 3 and 6 years of age (M = 5.2, SD = 0.78). Among these 234 children, 176 reached the criteria of accelerometer use, which was used to measure physical activity. The motor competence was measured using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and Korperkoordination Test fur Kinder (KTK). The results showed that the boys spent more time in total physical activity than girls on weekdays (204.0 ± 44.0 xs 222.5 ± 41.8 minutes, p <0.01) and on weekends (209.3 ± 49.3 227.9 ± 65.0 minutes xs, p <0.01). In both genders, the daily average time of total physical activity was above the international guidelines for physical activity for preschoolers ( 180 minutes per day). Regarding the performance on TGMD-2, there was a statistically significant superiority of boys mainly in object control skills, with stabilization of performance, in both genders, at about 5 years old. In the KTK, there was no difference between the genders in the total score. The association between physical activity and motor skills, although statistically significant, were reduced in both genders, ranging from r = 0.26 for vigorous physical activity within the school and the total score in object control skills in the girls and r = 0.31 for vigorous physical activity outside school and the total KTK score in the boys. In addition, chi-square analysis showed no association between attending the international guidelines of total physical activity and the level of motor competence. In conclusion, boys showed higher levels of total physical activity than girls and also showed greater motor competence, especially in object control skills; however, the low or non-significant values of association between physical activity and motor competence raise a question about the adequacy of international guidelines for physical activity in childhood, indicating that the amount of physical activity may not be a relevant aspect for the acquisition of motor competence. These data reinforce the need for a greater focus on qualitative aspects of physical activity.