Evidence-based risk assessment and recommendations for physical activity: arthritis, osteoporosis, and low back pain1This paper is one of a selection of papers published in the Special Issue entitled Evidence-based risk assessment and recommendations for physical activity clearance, and has undergone the Journal's usual peer-review process

Philip D. Chilibeck, Hassanali Vatanparast, Stephen M. Cornish, Saman Abeysekara, Sarah Charlesworth
<span title="">2011</span> <i title="Canadian Science Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ji5nh6isuzgwvotdvdfsxmam2u" style="color: black;">Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism</a> </i> &nbsp;
We systematically reviewed the safety of physical activity (PA) for people with arthritis, osteoporosis, and low back pain. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Sport Discus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1966( through March 2008 for relevant articles on PA and adverse events. A total of 111 articles met our inclusion criteria. The incidence for adverse events during PA was 3.4%-11% (0.06%-2.4% serious adverse events) and included increased joint pain, fracture, and back pain
more &raquo; ... or those with arthritis, osteoporosis, and low back pain, respectively. Recommendations were based on the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation, which applies Levels of Evidence based on type of study ranging from high-quality randomized controlled trials (Level 1) to anecdotal evidence (Level 4) and Grades from A (strong) to C (weak). Our main recommendations are that (i) arthritic patients with highly progressed forms of disease should avoid heavy load-bearing activities, but should participate in non-weight-bearing activities (Level 2, Grade A); and (ii) patients with osteoporosis should avoid trunk flexion (Level 2, Grade A) and powerful twisting of the trunk (Level 3, Grade C); (iii) patients with acute low back pain can safely do preference-based PA (i.e., PA that does not induce pain), including low back extension and flexion (Level 2, Grade B); (iv) arthritic patients with stable disease without progressive joint damage and patients with stable osteoporosis or low back pain can safely perform a variety of progressive aerobic or resistance-training PAs (Level 2, Grades A and B). Overall, the adverse event incidence from reviewed studies was low. PA can safely be done by most individuals with musculoskeletal conditions.
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