Gapless fermions and quantum order

X. G. Wen, A. Zee
2002 Physical Review B (Condensed Matter)  
Using 2D quantum spin-1/2 model as a concrete example, we studied the relation between gapless fermionic excitations (spinons) and quantum orders in some spin liquid states. Using winding number, we find the projective symmetry group that characterizes the quantum order directly determines the pattern of Fermi points in the Brillouin zone. Thus quantum orders provide an origin for gapless fermionic excitations.
doi:10.1103/physrevb.66.235110 fatcat:jaoafvezszgfziglngnu7lrupy