Tutupan Karang Keras dan Distribusi Karang Indikator di Perairan Aceh bagian Utara (Hard Coral Cover and Distribution of Indicator Coral in Northern Acehnese Reef)

Edi Rudi
2010 unpublished
Coral reefs are widely recognized as the center of coastal biological activity, coastal protection and geological processes, and also the productive site for fisheries and tourism. By definition, ecological resilience is the ability of a system to undergo, absorb and respond to change and disturbance, while maintaining its functions and controls. The environmental conditions that favor such community resilience may be different from those that favor resistance. From six field components of reef
more » ... resilience, benthic cover and coral indicators population structure are the most important for reef resilience. This research has been done at 20 sites in northern Aceh reef, i.e. Weh Island (Sabang) and Aceh Besar regency. Benthic coverage data were collected by employing line intercept transects methods, whereas data of indicator coral population structure were collected by employing belt transect. The results show that hard coral percentage were range from 20.46%-67.4%. Generally, hard coral cover in areas protected by the Sabang Weh Island management authority was higher than those occurred in open access areas. The resistant corals category includes Porites (massive) and Pavona which are abundant in western Weh Island, while larger coral colonies of resistant category such as Acropora dan Pocillopora, are abundant in eastern Weh Island. If sea surface temperature is increase, west and north parts of the Weh Island will be the most vulnerable areas for coral mass bleaching. Key words: hard coral cover, indicator coral, management, coral recruit ABSTRAK. Resiliensi ekologi adalah kemampuan suatu sistem untuk menjalani, meredam dan merespon perubahan dan gangguan, sambil mempertahankan fungsi dan pengontrolannya. Dari enam indikator resiliensi terumbu karang yang sedang dikembangkan, maka kondisi tutupan karang dan distribusi karang-karang indikator adalah bagian penting resiliensi terumbu karang. Penelitian ini dilakukan di 20 stasiun pengamatan yang terdapat di perairan Aceh bagian utara, yaitu di Pulau Weh dan Aceh Besar. Persentase tutupan karang keras diperoleh dengan metode line intercept transects (LIT) dengan mengamati bentuk hidup benthik yang ada, sedangkan distribusi karang indikator diamati dengan metode transek kuadrat. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa persentase tutupan karang keras berkisar dari 20,46%-67,4%. Secara umum tutupan karang keras di wilayah yang dilindungi oleh autoritas pengelolaan berada dalam kondisi baik dibandingkan wilayah yang dibiarkan terbuka (open access). Rekrut karang yang masuk kategori tahan seperti Porites (massive) dan Pavona banyak ditemukan di bagian barat Pulau Weh, sedangkan karang dewasa tahan banyak ditemukan di stasiun yang berada sebelah timur Pulau Weh. Karang dewasa kategori rentan seperti Acropora dan Pocillopora yang banyak di bagian barat dan utara Pulau Weh perlu menunjukkan bahwa daerah tersebut berpotensi untuk mengalami pemutihan (bleaching) apabila terjadi pamanasan global yang menyebabkan suhu air laut yang naik. Kata kunci: tutupan karang keras, karang indikator, pengelolaan, rekrut karang
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