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In underwater sensor networks (UWSNs), it is important to determine the location of all the sensors. Localization is the process of estimating the location of each node in a sensor network. There are only few localization schemes for UWSNs even though many localization algorithms have been proposed for terrestrial sensor networks. The characteristics of underwater sensor networks are fundamentally different from that of terrestrial networks. The physical layer environments with rigorousdoi:10.21172/ijiet.81.014 fatcat:uddnsvebzba5xhzklzdpk4pngi