PSYCOLOGICAL REVIEW

1908 Mind  
PHILOSOPHICAL PERIODICALS. 587 reaction against empiricism, evolutionism, psychologism, relativism, and a recognition of the eternal values of knowledge, art, religion and ethics. Moreover, while Kant vacillated between immanence and transcendence, recent philosophy (especially neo-romanticism) tends to refer these eternal values to metaphysical reality. However, the critical spirit serves as a safeguard against dogmatic and one-sided logicism.] Reviews of Books. Notices of New Books. Summaries
more » ... ew Books. Summaries of Articles. Notes. PSYC'OLOOICAL REVIEW. Vol. xv., No. 1. H.R.Marshall. 'President's Address, American Psychological Association, Chicago. Meeting, December, 1907: The Methods of the Naturalist and Psychologist' [On the whole, experimental psychology up to the present time has been misleading, and introspective psychology crude. We need a reform in introspective method. A suggested mode of procedure is to endow presentations with five general qualities: intensity (including vividness), manifoldness, realness, the algedonic quality and the time quality. These correspond respectively to degree of activity of the elementary nervous part, to necessary display of complexity in neururgic emphasis, to relative stability of successive neururgic patterns, to relative efficiency of elementary neural activity, and to state of specific neururgic emphasis when considered in relation to past emphases of like nature. The procedure is illustrated by reference to the laws of transformation of elemental qualities required by the systemic nature of consciousness, and to the implications of the quality of realness. Application of the method leads to the discovery of combinational senses of relation, due to coincident emphasis of two or more phases of the general qualities in connexion with a given presentation ; of broadly occurring special qualities {e.g., spatial quality); and thence to the treatment of specific and differentiated presentations, and of the relation of these to the nonpresentable but always existent self.] Studies from the Bryn Mawr College Laboratory, G. M. Fernald. ' The Effect of the Brightness of Background on the Appearance of Colour Stimuli in Peripheral Vision.' [(1) Brightness of achromatic background affects range of indirect vision for O, Y and carmine ; not for B, GB and V. (2) R, O and Y tend to appear R or O with light background at the points where they appear Y with the dark ; B, GB, V and carmine tend to appear bluish with dark ground where they appear colourless with light; C may possibly be redder -when observed on light ground. (3) Brightness of achromatic ground affects frequency and tone of after-image. (4) Duration of stimulus, from 1 to 3 sec., has little effect on appearance or frequency of image. Theoretical discussion is postponed; but the results suggest a relation to the Purkinje phenomenon in central vision.] B. Sidia. 'The Doctrine of Primary and Secondary Sensory Elements.-i.' [After a sketchy review of theories of perception, the writer defines the percept as an integrated whole, with nuclear and marginal elements, the former serving as cue to -motor reaction and carrying affective tone. The nuclear elements are given directly by the sense-organ: the marginal are not images, but secondary sensations, "indirectly peripherally initiated". Syncesthesia is therefore the rule; a percept is an hallucination with primary nuclear elements present, an hallucination a percept with these elements absent. Abnormal is not the secondary sensation, but its dissociation.] Vol. xv., No. 2.' H. C. Stevena. ' Peculiarities of Peripheral Vision.-I. Space Values of the Peripheral Retina.' [In general, objects seen in the right half of the monocular field of vision appear uniformly greater than objects seen in the left half; while, as compared with macular vision, objects in the right-upper half of the field are grossly overestimated, and those in the left-lower half underestimated or but slightly overestimated.
doi:10.1093/mind/xvii.4.587 fatcat:6f4zgbegxzdlxe33j2jw3iex4q