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qMany journalists, readers and scholars exhibit confusion concerning the nature and justification of deception. In this article, we clarify those acts that should count as deception. Before discussing if any cases of deception can be construed as morally justified, we clarify which investigative, interrogative, and information-giving techniques are deceptive on their face. We also bracket borderline cases.doi:10.1207/s15327728jmme0702_1 fatcat:qpxljb3ykbcsnoxgjhzzvoq4je