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Programmed cell death (PCD) plays crucial roles in plant development and defence response. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced during normal plant growth, and high ROS concentrations can change the antioxidant status of cells, leading to spontaneous cell death. In addition, ROS function as signalling molecules to improve plant stress tolerance, and they induce PCD under different conditions. This review describes the mechanisms underlying plant PCD, the key functions of mitochondria anddoi:10.3390/ijms222312942 pmid:34884747 pmcid:PMC8657872 fatcat:tflexmfzuzfshbq7g3l3ichijq