Tracheostomy: A hospital based descriptive study

Ashwin Menon, Deepa, E Balakrishnan, Aswin Mukundan, Anupama Anisseril, Resident
2017 MedPulse International Journal of ENT   unpublished
Tracheostomy is one of the most frequently performed surgeries in the emergency department, Intensive care units and at bedside in the present scenario. This prospective study comprises of hundred cases of varying age groups with different indications for the procedure. The aim of our study is to outline the frequent indications, to analyse various complications and to evaluate the outcomes of tracheostomy in our setting in our Institution. Data obtained from the tracheostomised patients during
more » ... 1 1/2 year period were collected and analysed. Despite the fact that tracheostomy is a common life saving procedure in the care of critically ill patients, there is paucity of information in our local setting regarding the subject and hence the need for the study. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study 100 patients who underwent tracheostomy due to various indications were studied from February 2014 to July 2015 at Academy of medical sciences, Pariyaram, Kannur, Kerala, India. Results: There were 77 male patients and 23 female patients in our study with a male: female ratio of 3.3: 1.The most common indication for tracheostomy was upper airway obstruction secondary to neoplastic causes (32%), followed by upper airway obstruction due to traumatic causes in 24%. Post tracheostomy complication rate was 34%. Complication rate was significantly higher in emergency tracheostomy than in elective procedure. Mortality rate was 13%. The mortality was due to their underlying illnesses, none had tracheostomy related mortality. Conclusion: Tracheostomy still remains a life saving procedure in the surgical management of airway if performed timely despite its few complications. Most of tracheostomy related complications can be avoided by meticulous attention to the details of the technique and postoperative tracheostomy care by skilled and trained staff.