Evaluation of Environmental Contaminations and Occupational Exposures Involved in Preparation of Chemotherapeutic Drugs
Many healthcare workers are concerned about the risk of occupational exposures to hazardous drugs. The Japanese Society of Hospital Pharmacists (JSHP) revised the"Guidelines for the Handling of Antineoplastic Drugs in Hospitals", however, the precautions and awareness of handling drugs varied in institutions. We assessed the levels of environmental contaminations in our hospital and urinary excretion of cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IF) in pharmacists and nurses. In environmental
... nvironmental studies, we obtained samples by wiping the surfaces around two biological safety cabinets (BSCs) on eight days for four months. One BSC was equipped in hospital pharmacy and the other was equipped in an oncology ward, and used for preparing chemotherapeutic drugs for outpatients and for inpatients, respectively. We obtained the urine samples from 6 pharmacists and 2 nurses. We used solid phase extraction (SPE) as a convenient extraction procedure and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for the analysis of the samples. CP was detected on the working surfaces inside both BSCs, and detected at low levels on the back surfaces of the BSCs and at the working tables around the BSCs. IF over the LLOQ was not detected in both BSCs. CP and IF were not detected in all urine samples of pharmacists and nurses. Detection frequencies and amounts of these drugs were low levels, compared with previous reports in Japan, and our results showed that improving awareness about handling hazardous drugs could reduce the risk of the occupational exposures.