Aeronautical Networks for In-Flight Connectivity: A Tutorial of the State-of-the-Art and Survey of Research Challenges

Tugce Bilen, Hamed Ahmadi, Berk Canberk, Trung Q. Duong
<span title="">2022</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/q7qi7j4ckfac7ehf3mjbso4hne" style="color: black;">IEEE Access</a> </i> &nbsp;
The aeronautical networks attract the attention of both industry and academia since Internet access during flights turns to the crucial demand from luxury with the evolving technology. This In-Flight Connectivity (IFC) necessity is currently dominated by the satellite connectivity and Air-to-Ground (A2G) network solutions. However, the high installation/equipment cost and latency of the satellite connectivity reduce its efficiency. The A2G networks are utilized through the 4G/5G ground stations
more &raquo; ... deployed on terrestrial areas to solve these satellites' problems. This terrestrial deployment reduces the coverage area of A2G networks, especially for remote flights over the ocean. The Aeronautical Ad-hoc Networks (AANETs) are designed to provide IFC while solving the primary defects of dominating solutions. The AANET is an entirely novel solution under the vehicular networks since it consists of aircraft with ultra-dynamic and unstructured characteristics. These characteristics separate it from the less dynamic Flying Ad-Hoc Networks (FANETs). Therefore, the environmental and mobility effects cause specific challenges for AANETs. This article presents a holistic review of these open AANET challenges by investigating them in data link, network, and transport layers. Before giving the details of these challenges, this article explores the state-ofthe-art literature about satellite and A2G networks for IFC. We then give our specific interest to the AANET by investigating its particular characteristics and open research challenges. The main starting point of this study is that there is a lack of compact research on this exciting topic, although IFC is an inevitable need for the aeronautical industry. Also, the AANET could be underlined by giving all state-of-the-art about the dominating IFC solutions. Therefore, this is the first work exploring the state-of-the-art for all the existing aeronautical networking technologies under a single comprehensive survey by deeply analyzing specific characteristics and open research challenges of AANETs. Additionally, the AANET is a novel topic and should be separately investigated from the FANETs as given in current literature. INDEX TERMS Aeronautical networks, in-flight connectivity, aeronautical ad-hoc networks, air-to-ground networks, satellite connectivity. • High Frequency (HF) and Very High Frequency (VHF) Links: The HF and VHF links could be used for the aeronautical voice communications based on the Single Side-Band Amplitude Modulation (SSB-AM) and DSB-AM technologies. The HF links operate between the 3 to 30 MHz bands. These HF links could be utilized for long-range communications, and accordingly, the signals could be reflected by the ionosphere. Unlike, the VHF links work between the 30-300 MHz transmission range. The frequency ranges 108-118 MHz and 118-137 MHz are used for radio navigation and communication. Also, the ionosphere and other obstacles do not reflect its signal.
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