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This paper proposes a bilevel optimization framework for time-dependent discrete road network design that considers health impacts. A general health cost function is proposed and captured in the framework. The function simultaneously considers the health impacts of road traffic emissions, noise, and accidents due to network expansion. To solve the problem, Artificial Bee Colony algorithm (ABC) is proposed to search the network design solutions of the upper level problem, while the method ofdoi:10.1080/23249935.2014.927938 fatcat:mydy5ghtgbfrzldmhvpaayc6sm