Refractometric study on binary, ternary, and quaternary solutions made by water, methanol, ethanol, glycerol, D-glucose monohydrate (DGMH), sucrose, and sodium chloride at T = 293.15 K and atmospheric pressure

Fardad Koohyar, Javad Nasiri, Farhoush Kiani
2019 Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society  
<p>The glycerol, D-glucose monohydrate (DGMH), sucrose, and sodium chloride are used in food industries and the measurement of properties for these components and their aqueous solutions can be important. In this research work, the refractive indices for binary solutions of (methanol + glycerol), (ethanol + glycerol), ternary solutions of (water<strong> + </strong>glycerol + DGMH), (water + glycerol + sucrose), (water + sucrose + DGMH), (water + sucrose + ethanol), (water + ethanol + DGMH),
more » ... er + NaCl + DGMH), (water + methanol + NaCl), (water + ethanol + NaCl), (water + NaCl + glycerol), (water + sucrose + NaCl), and quaternary solutions of (water + ethanol + sucrose + DGMH), (water + ethanol + sucrose + glycerol), (water + NaCl + sucrose + glycerol) were measured in wide range of mole fractions at T = 293.15 K and atmospheric pressure. For binary solutions of this study, the changes of refractive index on mixing, ∆n<sub>D</sub>, were calculated in each mole fraction at T = 293.15 K. Also, the refractive index of binary solutions was fitted by a semi-empirical equation. The constant of this equation, K<sub>r</sub>, was represented by Koohyar et al. in 2011. This constant can be used to investigate power of interactions between solute and solvent molecules. For ternary and quaternary solutions of this study, a semi-empirical equation was used to determine refractive indices at given temperature. The comparison between calculated and experimental refractive indices shows that there is a good agreement between them especially in lower molal concentrations. </p>
doi:10.29356/jmcs.v62i4.679 fatcat:kqz3fwpmz5gtdav4f3bb7insy4