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Self-assembly (SA) is the process in which a system's components-be it molecules, polymers, colloids, or macroscopic particles-organize into ordered and/or functional structures without human intervention. The main challenge in SA research is the ability to "program" the properties of the individual pieces such that they organize into a desired structure. Although a general strategy for doing so is still elusive, heuristic rules can be formulated that guide design of SA under various conditionsdoi:10.1039/b819321p fatcat:wc7gz4ajs5ef7jzcxmysjtkhb4