How dynamic are IP addresses?

Yinglian Xie, Fang Yu, Kannan Achan, Eliot Gillum, Moises Goldszmidt, Ted Wobber
2007 Proceedings of the 2007 conference on Applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications - SIGCOMM '07  
This paper introduces a novel method, UDmap, to identify dynamically assigned IP addresses and analyze their dynamics pattern. UDmap is fully automatic, and relies only on application-level server logs that are already available today. We applied UDmap to a month-long Hotmail user-login trace and identified a significant number of dynamic IP addresses -more than 102 million. This suggests that the portion of dynamic IP addresses in the Internet is by no means negligible. In addition, using this
more » ... ddition, using this information combined with a three-month Hotmail email server log, we were able to establish that 97% of mail servers setup on dynamic IP addresses sent out solely spam emails, likely controlled by zombies. Moreover, these mail servers sent out a large amount of spam -counting towards over 42% of all spam emails to Hotmail. These results highlight the importance of being able to accurately identify dynamic IP addresses for spam filtering, and we expect similar benefits of it for phishing site identification and botnet detection. To our knowledge, this is the first successful attempt to automatically identify and understand IP dynamics.
doi:10.1145/1282380.1282415 dblp:conf/sigcomm/XieYAGGW07 fatcat:7bfvea74wjbsvda6aezmlrfd7y