AC-coupled front-end for biopotential measurements

E.M. Spinelli, R. Pallas-Areny, M.A. Mayosky
2003 IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering  
AC coupling is essential in biopotential measurements. Electrode offset potentials can be several orders of magnitude larger than the amplitudes of the biological signals of interest, thus limiting the admissible gain of a dc-coupled front end to prevent amplifier saturation. A high-gain input stage needs ac input coupling. This can be achieved by series capacitors, but in order to provide a bias path, grounded resistors are usually included, which degrade the common mode rejection ratio
more » ... ection ratio (CMRR). This paper proposes a novel balanced input ac-coupling network that provides a bias path without any connection to ground, thus resulting in a high CMRR. The circuit being passive, it does not limit the differential dc input voltage. Furthermore, differential signals are ac coupled, whereas common-mode voltages are dc coupled, thus allowing the closed-loop control of the dc common mode voltage by means of a driven-right-leg circuit. This makes the circuit compatible with common-mode dc shifting strategies intended for single-supply biopotential amplifiers. The proposed circuit allows the implementation of high-gain biopotential amplifiers with a reduced number of parts, thus resulting in low power consumption. An electrocardiogram amplifier built according to the proposed design achieves a CMRR of 123 dB at 50 Hz. Index Terms-AC coupling, biopotential amplifiers, electrode offset potential.
doi:10.1109/tbme.2003.808826 pmid:12669996 fatcat:ka7x5ez3erarrmsxbyqurpfkpi