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Smart grids provide additional capabilities for the observability and controllability of the distribution grid. The Distribution System Operators are investing in a new Information and Communications Technology infrastructure that provides bi-directional control over small/medium-scale distributed generation and Distributed Energy Resources connected to the MV and LV grids. In this paradigm, new market players, such as flexibility operators or aggregators, are emerging in several countries.doi:10.5281/zenodo.31497 fatcat:ezu5z3j5rjakngoyybj7rus3ju