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A temporal database contains time-varying data. In a real-time database transactions have deadlines or timing constraints. In this paper we review the substantial research in these two previously separate areas. First we characterize the time domain; then we investigate temporal and real-time data models. We evaluate temporal and real-time query languages along several dimensions. We examine temporal and real-time DBMS implementation. Finally, we summarize major research accomplishments to date and list several unanswered research questions.doi:10.1109/69.404027 fatcat:5ao5knajt5g6pbwv7s3wvm65sm