A Pre-Steady State Analysis of Ligand Binding to Human Glucokinase: Evidence for a Preexisting Equilibrium

Young B. Kim, Stephen S. Kalinowski, Jovita Marcinkeviciene
2007 Biochemistry  
Cooperativity with glucose is a key feature of human glucokinase (GK), allowing its crucial role as a glucose sensor in hepatic and pancreatic cells. We studied the changes in enzyme intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence induced by binding of different ligands to this monomeric enzyme using stoppedflow and equilibrium binding methods. Glucose binding data under pre-steady state conditions suggest that the free enzyme in solution is in a preexisting equilibrium between at least two conformers
more » ... pen and open) which differ in their affinity for glucose (K d * ) 0.17 ( 0.02 mM and K d ) 73 ( 18 mM). Increasing the glucose concentration changes the ratio of the two conformers, thus yielding an apparent K d of 3 mM (different from a K m of 7-10 mM). The rates of conformational transitions of free and GK complexed with sugar are slow and during catalysis are most likely affected by ATP binding, phosphate transfer, and product release steps to allow the k cat to be 60 s -1 . The ATP analogue PNP-AMP binds to free GK (super-open) and GK-glucose (open) complexes with comparable affinities (K d ) 0.23 ( 0.02 and 0.19 ( 0.08 mM, respectively). However, cooperativity with PNP-AMP observed under equilibrium binding conditions in the presence of glucose (Hill slope of 1.6) is indicative of further complex tightening to the closed conformation. Another physiological modulator (inhibitor), palmitoyl-CoA, binds to GK with similar characteristics, suggesting that conformational changes induced upon ligand binding are not restricted by an active site ligand. In conclusion, our data support control of GK activity and K m through the ratio of distinct conformers (super-open, open, and closed) through either substrate or other ligand binding and/or dissociation.
doi:10.1021/bi0617308 pmid:17260972 fatcat:nuhhmzs4cza7dpsxcgaujxjjje