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Astrophysics and Space Science Library
Theoretical studies, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations have shown several barriers in planetesimal formation, including radial drift, fragmentation, and bouncing problems. Also, observations of protoplanetary disks have shown the radial drift problems of millimeter-sized bodies at the outer orbital radius. The key to solving these problems is understanding porosity evolution. Dust grains become fluffy by coagulation in protoplanetary disks and this alters both the dynamic anddoi:10.1007/978-3-319-60609-5_5 fatcat:gnu4m3ikbjdvpmqimu7zk7vdjm