Therapeutic options for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections beyond co-trimoxazole: a systematic review
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen, causing infections whose management is often problematic due to its inherent resistance to many antibiotics, making co-trimoxazole the main therapeutic option. However, there are cases in which either due to antimicrobial resistance or allergic reactions and intolerance to co-trimoxazole this antibiotic cannot be administered. We sought to evaluate the available clinical evidence regarding potentially effective
... ially effective alternative antibiotics for the treatment of S. maltophilia infections. Methods: The literature search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases. The search string used was 'Stenotrophomonas maltophilia OR Xanthomonas maltophilia'. Results: Thirty-one case reports and 5 case series were retrieved including a total of 49 patients with a variety of infections. Twenty of 49 cases (40.8%) were treated with ciprofloxacin as monotherapy or in combination with other antibiotics; 12 of 49 cases (24.5%) were treated with ceftriaxone-or ceftazidimebased regimens; and 6 of 49 cases (12.2%) were treated with ticarcillin-or ticarcillin/clavulanate-based regimens. The cure or improvement rates were 18 cases (90%), 8 (75%) and 4 (66.7%), respectively. The remaining 11 patients received various antimicrobials including aminoglycoside-based regimens, carbapenems, levofloxacin, chloramphenicol, aztreonam, minocycline and other b-lactams. Conclusions: The limited available data suggest that ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime or ceftriaxone, and ticarcillin/clavulanate, alone or in combination with other antibiotics, may be considered as alternative options beyond co-trimoxazole.