Flow, flow transition and runout distances of flowing avalanches

B. Salm
1993 Annals of Glaciology  
A simple quasi one-dimensional model of flowing avalanches is presented. It is a further development of that used in the Swiss Guidelines for practitioners. It is shown that shearing in avalanche movement is concentrated near the ground and that, due to the geometrical roughness of the ground, a flow resistance proportional to the square of velocity must be taken into account in addition to dry friction. For the change of flow on changing slope angles it is demonstrated that under certain
more » ... under certain conditions for internal friction a "normal" flow on a flat lower part can no longer be attained; the avalanche behaves like a rigid body. The runout distance is in fair agreement with the Guidelines if a larger internal friction is used. The main differences lie in much smaller deposition depths and smaller velocities during runout.
doi:10.3189/s0260305500011551 fatcat:ipjf77ylk5bllalo2ctknqnfsq