Can Quantum Computers Learn Like Classical Computers? A Co-Design Framework of Machine Learning and Quantum Circuits
Despite the pursuit of quantum supremacy in various applications, the power of quantum computers in machine learning (such as neural network models) has mostly remained unknown, primarily due to a missing link that effectively designs a neural network model suitable for quantum circuit implementation. In this article, we present the first co-design framework, namelyQuantumFlow, to fixed the missing link. QuantumFlow consists of a novel quantum-friendly neural network (QF-Net) design, an
... c tool (QF-Map) to generate the quantum circuit (QF-Circ) for QF-Net, and a theoretic-based execution engine (QF-FB) to efficiently support the training of QF-Net on a classical computer. We discover that, in order to make full use of the strength of quantum representation, data in QF-Net is best modeled as random variables rather than real numbers. Moreover, instead of using the classical batch normalization (which is key to achieve high accuracy for deep neural networks), a quantum-aware batch normalization method is proposed for QF-Net. Evaluation results show that QF-Net can achieve 97.01% accuracy in distinguishing digits 3 and 6 in the widely used MNIST dataset, which is 14.55% higher than the state-of-the-art quantum-aware implementation. A case study on a binary classification application is conducted. Running on IBM Quantum processor's"ibmq_essex" backend, a neural network designed by QuantumFlow can achieve 82% accuracy. To the best of our knowledge,QuantumFlow is the first framework that co-designs both the machine learning model and its quantum circuit.