The effects of sex steroids on bone via extraskeletal actions

Stavros Fokas, George Moustakas, George Tsirpanlis
2020 Journal of Research and Practice on the Musculoskeletal System  
Sex steroids have direct effect on bone via their action on the estrogen and androgen receptors of bone cells. However, there is emerging evidence that their indirect actions on bone can play also important role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and bone loss in inflammatory diseases. The tissues that are involved in the extraskeletal actions of sex hormones and are better studied in the past few decades are adipose tissue, muscle tissue and the immune system. Key regulators on those complex
more » ... s on those complex pathways are molecules such as cytokines, adipokines and reactive oxygen species.
doi:10.22540/jrpms-04-090 fatcat:mxrpclubjbajporqfpjpwopq3y