Disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS. Buenos Aires, 2009-2014
Medicina (Buenos Aires)
Histoplasmosis diseminada en pacientes HIV/Sida. Buenos Aires, 2009-2014
A retrospective study was carried out on 171 cases of disseminated histoplasmosis diagnosed in HIV/AIDS patients during the period 2009-2014. Although HIV diagnosis rates remained stable over the study period, a sensible increase in the number of histoplasmosis cases was observed in the last three years. Disseminated histoplasmosis was prevalent in males with an average age of 37.8 years. At diagnosis, only 54/171 (31.6%) were receiving HAART, and CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts ranged from 4 to 264
... ged from 4 to 264 cells/upsilon. Cutaneous lesions, including ulcerated papules or molluscoid plaques, were present in 110/171 (64.3%), with Histoplasma capsulatum being observed in all skin scraping specimens upon Giemsa staining. Respiratory manifestations were second in frequency with bronchoalveolar lavage showing a high diagnostic performance. Radiological findings included milliary patterns, interstitial infiltrates, and focalized condensations. Out of 141 blood cultures performed, H. capsulatum was isolated in 82 (58.2%). No significant difference in diagnostic performance was found between blood cultures and skin scraping (p = 0.6164). Other opportunistic infections were observed in 70/171 (40.9%) prior to or concomitantly with histoplasmosis. Association with Mycobacterium tuberculosis was recorded in 16/171 (9.4%) and one had a multi-drug resistant isolate. The severity of histoplasmosis determined the monotherapy with amphotericin B deoxycholate in 115 (67.3%), itraconazole in 42 (24.5%), and combined therapies in 14 (8.2%). Mortality was 19.9% (34/171). Finally, we emphasize that the higher prevalence in the last three years of the study should prompt the medical community to consider the diagnosis of histoplasmosis to reduce mortality of AIDS patients.