Pushing the envelope for polymer flooding towards high-temperature and high-salinity reservoirs with polyacrylamide based ter-polymers
SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference
A R T I C L E I N F O Keywords: Chemical engineering Polyacrylamide (PAM) Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) 2-Acrylamido-2-MethylpropaneSulfonic acid (AMPS) High salinity High temperature Polymer integration A B S T R A C T Polyacrylamides (PAM) are widely used as water-soluble polymers producing gel in oil reservoirs to assist in oil extraction from reservoirs with high levels of heterogeneity. These gels are susceptible to degradation due to hydrolysis in harsh reservoir conditions such as elevated
... s such as elevated temperature and salinity. This study uses a polymer integration technique in attempting to optimize the performance of PAM in the enhanced oil recovery process for reservoirs with high temperature and salinity. The results show that, at high temperature, hydrolysis is suppressed and gel stability is maintained via the addition of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to PAM solutions. The optimum composition was identified as being 20/80 wt% PAM: PVP for oilfield operations at 90 C and a moderate salinity of 43,280 ppm. The degree of hydrolysis at 30 days was suppressed from 75% to 29.9%, with associated increases in viscosity from 11 to 38.2 mPa.s and from 18 to 44.3 mPa.s corresponding to rotational speeds of 30 and 10 rpm respectively. The issue of high salinity was considered by increasing the salinity of the optimised PAM: PVP mixture to 200,000 ppm. Under these conditions the degree of hydrolysis of the optimised solution increased from 29.9 to 46.9% and viscosity decreased from 38.2 to 28.6 and from 44.3 to 40.4 mPa.s for rotational speeds of 30 and 10 rpm respectively. 2-Acrylamido-2-MethylpropaneSulfonic acid (AMPS) was added to the mix to try to improve temperature stability. It was observed that, with an optimum composition of 18/72/10 wt% PAM:PVP:AMPS, the degree of hydrolysis decreased to 22% with viscosity levels of 30.6 and 22.8 mPa.s corresponding to rotational speeds of 10 and 30 rpm respectively.