Gene Regulation by HMGA and HMGB Chromosomal Proteins and Related Architectural DNA-Binding Proteins [chapter]

Andrew A. Travers
DNA Conformation and Transcription  
T he eukaryotic abundant high mobility group HMGA and HMGB proteins can act as architectural transcription factors by promoting the assembly of higher-order protein-DNA complexes which can either activate or repress gene expression. The structural organisation of both classes of protein is similar with either a single or repeated DNA binding domain preceding a short negatively charged C-terminal tail. In the HMGB class of proteins the HMG DNA-binding domain binds non-specifically and introduces
more » ... ally and introduces a sharp bend into DNA whereas the AT-hook in the HMGA protein binds preferentially to A/T rich regions of DNA and stabilises a B-DNA struaiu-e. The acidic tails are hypothesised to facilitate the interaction of the proteins with nucleosomes by binding to the positively charged histone tails. Both classes of protein also interact with a large number of transcription factors that bind to specific DNA sequences.
doi:10.1007/0-387-29148-2_11 fatcat:rsz6emubs5gyfmulsglzabecky