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In this paper color image quantization by clustering is discussed. A clustering scheme, based on competitive learning is constructed and compared to the well-known C-means clustering algorithm. It is demonstrated that both perform equally well, but that the former is superior to the latter with respect to computing time. However, both depend on their initial conditions and may end up in local optima. Based on these findings, a hierarchical competitive learning scheme is constructed which isdoi:10.1016/s0167-8655(97)00116-5 fatcat:bhttict5s5btvnoriuwbsuoqve