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Manufacturing competitiveness frequently relies on company ability to rapidly reconfigure their assembly systems. This paper introduces assembly system proactivity, a concept based on interrelated levels of automation, human competence, and information handling. Increased and structured human involvement contributes to increased system ability to proactively address predicted and unpredicted events. Correct involvement of human operators will utilize the combined potential of human anddoi:10.1016/j.arcontrol.2009.05.004 fatcat:n47r6znspnelzoamhcbacceb4y