Effects of human milk oligosaccharides HMOs on gastrointestinal health

Veronica Di Nardo
2020 Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)  
Introduction 3. HMOs in maternal milk 4. HMOs structure 5. Biological function 6. HMOs metabolism 7. Genetics of HMOs: secretors and non-secretors 8. Beneficial effects of HMOs 9. Selective bait function 10. Gastrointestinal contractility 11. HMOs and allergies 12. HMOs and necrotizing enterocolitis in newborns 13. Use of HMOs in adults 14. HMOs associated with probiotics 15. Regulatory and productive aspects 16. Safety of use and tolerability in enriched foods and food supplements 17.
more » ... ns 18. References Effects of HMOs on gastrointestinal health 184 © 1996-2020 microbiota, or gut flora, has been defined as the "forgotten organ" (2). This communication network includes the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord; the autonomous nervous system (ANS); the enteric nervous system (ENS); the immune system (IS); and, finally the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. This latter communication pathway, whose main actor is cortisol, can be activated by environmental factors, emotions, or stress, all of which are able to change the composition of gut flora regardless of stimulus duration (3).
doi:10.2741/e866 fatcat:p3xkuh2tdnh4dafpgrkl644aki