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This paper reports a novel miniaturized pseudo reference electrode (RE) design for biasing Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors (ISFETs). It eliminates the need for post-CMOS processing and can scale up in numbers with the CMOS scaling. The presented design employs silane-mediated transfer of patterned gold electrode lines onto PDMS microfluidics such that the gold conformally coats the inside of microfluidic channel. Access to this electrode network is made possible by usingdoi:10.3390/mi12070762 fatcat:uvrqkritifbn5ozzovd6wfdgmm