Fluctuation-induced forces in the presence of mobile carrier drift
Physical review B
A small polarizable object (an atom, molecule or nanoparticle), placed above a medium with flowing dc current in it, is considered. It is shown that the dc current can have a strong effect on the force exerted on the particle. The Casimir-Lifshitz force, well studied in the absence of current, gets modified due to drifting mobile carriers in the medium. Furthermore, a force in the lateral direction appears. This force is a non-monotonic function of the drift velocity and its maximal value is
... parable with the Casimir-Lifshitz force. If the temperatures of the medium and the particle are different, this lateral force can be directed along the current (drag) or in the opposite direction (anti-drag).