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This paper describes an automatic method for proving equivalence of implementations of block ciphers (and similar cryptographic algorithms). The method can compare two object code implementations or compare object code to a formal, mathematical specification. In either case it proves that the computations being compared are bit-for-bit equivalent. The method has two steps. First the computations are represented as large mathematical terms. Then the two terms are proved equivalent using a phaseddoi:10.1109/fmcad.2008.ecp.10 dblp:conf/fmcad/SmithD08 fatcat:hzpzzutmznaspoq4fri7cakjqu