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X as the arithmetic mean of the ensemble means, i.e., X 0 1 N P N j01 X j , where N is the total number of models in the IPCC archive and X j is the ensemble mean signal of the jth model. This weighting avoids undue emphasis on results from a single model with a large number of realizations. 33. One measure of ENSO variability is s(T NIÑ Oj3.4 ), the standard deviation of sea-surface temperatures in the Niño 3.4 region of the equatorial Pacific. Values of s(T S ) in the 49 IPCC realizations aredoi:10.1126/science.1115640 pmid:16099950 fatcat:2immrrjf7rfihbyv7emgys4sxm