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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a prevalent arrhythmia in patients with cardiovascular disease. The classical risk factors for developing AF include hypertension, valvular disease, (ischaemic) cardiomyopathy, diabetes mellitus, and thyroid disease. In some patients with AF, no underlying (cardiovascular) pathology is present and the aetiology remains unknown. This condition is known as lone AF. However, in recent years, other factors playing a role in the genesis of AF have gained attention,doi:10.1093/europace/eun124 pmid:18480076 fatcat:thwpwmebk5gb5hbpdid2hqcvtu