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Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RIS) or Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces (IRS) are metasurfaces that can be deployed in various places in wireless environments to make these environments controllable and reconfigurable. In this paper, we investigate the problem of using 3D beamforming in RIS-empowered wireless networks and propose a new scheme that provides more degrees of freedom in designing and deploying the RIS-based networks. In the proposed scheme, a base station (BS) equipped with a<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2001.06653v1">arXiv:2001.06653v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/vtjezgzg7bfxbjfluramefg63e">fatcat:vtjezgzg7bfxbjfluramefg63e</a> </span>
more »... ull dimensional array of antennas optimizes its radiation pattern in the three-dimensional space to maximize the received signal to noise ratio at a target user. We also study the effect of angle of incidence of the received signal by the RIS on its reflecting properties and find a relation between this angle and the BS antenna array's tilt and elevation angles. The user receives the signal from a reflected path from the RIS as well as from a direct path from the BS which both depend on the BS antenna array's tilt and elevation angles. These angles and also the RIS element's phase shifts are jointly numerically optimized. Our simulation results show that using RIS-assisted 3D beamforming with optimized phase shifts and radiation angles can considerably improve the performance of wireless networks.
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