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Through measurements from 82 test chips, each with a state retention block of 8192 flip-flops, implemented using 65-nm design library, we demonstrate that state integrity of a flip-flop is sensitive to process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) variation. It has been found at 25 • C that First Failure Voltage (FFV) of flip-flops varies from die to die, ranging from 245-mV to 315-mV, with 79% of total dies exhibiting single bit failure at FFV, while the rest show multi-bit failure. In terms ofdoi:10.1109/tcsi.2013.2252640 fatcat:htlw64q2tbgn3g6xp3dp2jfwxm