Universal design concept of mitigation measures to tunnel structures in the case of fire

Yoshikazu Ota
Fire resistance of tunnel structures is an important issue. Over the last 15 years there have been a number of serious underground fires in road tunnels. These fires have caused extensive loss of life and severe collateral loss to the infrastructure, aside from the tragic loss of life, the long-term financial effects to the local infrastructure, the loss of public confidence in the safe use of tunnels. This paper describes the mitigation measures for the protection of the structural elements to
more » ... allow users to safely evacuate, to allow rescue personnel to enter the scene and effectively perform their required duties and to limit damage to the tunnel. Following aspects are focusing in this text, 1 Historical major tunnel fire, 2 Research for mitigation measures, 3 Time-Temperature curve for mitigation measures, 4 Basic concept of the acceptable critical temperature for concrete and steel materials, 5 Mitigation measures, and 6 Conclusion