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Considered in this short note is the design of output layer nodes of feedforward neural networks for solving multiple-class classification problems with r (r ≥ 3) classes of samples. The common and conventional setting of the output layer called "one-to-one approach" in this paper, is as follows: The output layer contains r output nodes corresponding to the r classes. And for an input sample of the i-th class (1 ≤ i ≤ r), the ideal output is 1 for the i-th output node, and 0 for all the otherdoi:10.1109/access.2018.2888852 fatcat:242sjuotkjbhdf4x6nvdvx4aou