Anti-hyperuricemic property of 6-shogaol via self-micro emulsifying drug delivery system in model rats: formulation design, in vitro and in vivo evaluation
The prevalence of hyperuricemia is relatively high worldwide, and a great number of patients are suffering from its complications. 6-shogaol, an alkylphenol compound purified from the root of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), has been proved to possess diverse pharmacological activities. However, its poor aqueous solubility usually leads to low bioavailability, and further clinical applications will be greatly discounted. The current study aimed to formulate a 6-shogaol-loaded-Self
... ifying Drug Delivery System (SMEDDS) to amend low aqueous solubility and bioavailability orally, as well as, potentiate the hyperuricemic activity of the 6-shogaol. SMEDDS was developed with central composite design established on a two system components viz., 18.62% W/W ethyl oleate (oil phase) and ratio of tween 80 (surfactant) to PEG 400 (co-surfactant) (1.73:1, W/W). Based on quadratic model, the navigation of the design space could generate spherically-shaped and homogenous droplets with respective mean particle diameter, polydispersity and of 20.00 ± 0.26 nm and 0.18 ± 0.02. The 6-shogaol-SMEDDS showed significant elevation of cumulative release compared with the free 6-shogaol and more importantly a 571.18% increment in the relative oral bioavailability of the drug. The predominant accumulation of 6-shogaol-SMEDDS in the liver suggested hepatic-targeting potentiality of the drug. Oral administration of 6-shogaol-SMEDDS in hyperuricemic rats also significantly decreased uric acid level and xanthine oxidase activity. Histological studies confirmed formulation groups indeed could provide better protection of kidney than free drug groups. Collectively, these findings indicated that the SMEDDS hold much promise in enhancing the oral delivery and therapeutic efficacy of 6-shogaol.