Yifan Zhu, Frank Mueller
2007 SIGPLAN notices  
Recent trends in CMOS fabrication have the demand to conserve power of processors. While dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) is effective in reducing dynamic power, microprocessors produced in ever smaller fabrication processes are increasingly dominated by static power. For such processors, voltage/frequency pairs below a critical speed result in higher energy per cycle than entering a processor sleep mode. Yet, computational demand above this critical speed is best met by DVS techniques while still
more » ... conserving power. We develop a novel combined leakage and DVS scheduling algorithm for real-time systems, DVSleak, based on earliestdeadline-first scheduling (EDF). Our method trades off DVS with leakage, where the former slows down execution while the latter intelligently defers dispatching of jobs when sleeping is beneficial. We further capitalize on feedback knowledge about actual execution times to anticipate computational demands without sacrificing deadline guarantees. As such, we contribute a novel feedback delay policy for leakage awareness, which addresses structural limitations of prior approaches. Experiments show that this combined DVS/leakage algorithm results in an average of (a) 50% additional energy savings over a leakage-oblivious DVS algorithm, (b) 20% more energy savings over a more simplistic combination of DVS and sleep policies and (c) 8.5% or more over dynamic slack reclamation with procrastination. Particularly task sets with periods shorter than ten milliseconds profit from our approach with 15% energy savings over best prior schemes. This makes DVSleak the best combined DVS/leakage regulation approach for real-time systems that we know of.
doi:10.1145/1273444.1254772 fatcat:7janzocg3zcvhovmr47pyj4phq