Survey of Research for Performance Measurement of Mobile Manipulators

Roger Bostelman, Tsai Hong, Jeremy Marvel
2016 Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology  
This survey provides the basis for developing research in the area of mobile manipulator performance measurement, an area that has relatively few research articles when compared to other mobile manipulator research areas. The survey provides a literature review of mobile manipulator research with examples of experimental applications. The survey also provides an extensive list of planning and control references as this has been the major research focus for mobile manipulators which factors into
more » ... performance measurement of the system. The survey then reviews performance metrics considered for mobile robots, robot arms, and mobile manipulators and the systems that measure their performance, including machine tool measurement systems through dynamic motion tracking systems. Lastly, the survey includes a section on research that has occurred for performance measurement of robots, mobile robots, and mobile manipulators beginning with calibration, standards, and mobile manipulator artifacts that are being considered for evaluation of mobile manipulator performance. management system controls the mobile manipulator using typically high level remote commands to the onboard controller with no direct operator interface). Metrics for safety and performance of mobile manipulators include many areas, such as: safe operation, task completion, time to complete the task, quality, and quantity of tasks completed. Inherent in "quality" and "quantity" are the mobile manipulator accuracy and repeatability, respectively. These metrics not only include task completion but also focus on how well and how many times the task was completed. Prior to industrial acceptance and standards development for mobile manipulators, users of these new systems will expect manufacturers to provide real performance data to guide their procurement and assure suitability for given application tasks. Robot performance measurements typically include the difference in position and orientation, or pose, of the end of arm tooling from the commanded robot pose. Ground truth measurement using motion tracking systems provides relatively accurate robot joint, segment, or tool point position information, enabling comparisons with the commanded pose. Review of robot, mobile robot, and mobile manipulator performance measurement research shows this as being a relatively new technique for performance evaluation within the research community. The motivation and objective of the survey are to provide a current state-of-the-art in mobile manipulator research and performance measurements for these systems. The target audience of the article is robotics researchers, users, manufacturers, and standards developers of mobile manipulators. The survey provides a literature review of mobile manipulator research with examples of experimental applications. The survey also provides an extensive list of planning and control references as this has been the major research focus for mobile manipulators which factors into performance measurement of the system. The survey then reviews performance metrics considered for mobile robots, robot arms, and mobile manipulators and the systems that measure their performance. Emphasis is placed on tracking systems for dynamic measurements as needed for mobile manipulators. Lastly, the survey includes a section on performance measurement research for robots, mobile robots, and mobile manipulators, beginning with calibration, standards, and mobile manipulator artifacts being considered for evaluation of mobile manipulator performance. However, this survey does not include grasping and in-hand manipulation of objects.
doi:10.6028/jres.121.015 fatcat:xh2nmy6b55hrnazuv2qw5w7uby