Compositional and entropy indirect noise generated in subsonic non-isentropic nozzles
Journal of Fluid Mechanics
Indirect noise generated by the acceleration of synthetic compositional and entropic perturbations through non-isentropic nozzles is measured experimentally. A physics-based analytical low-order model to evaluate the indirect noise generated by non-isentropic compact nozzles is developed and validated with experimental measurements. A one-dimensional model for describing the waves generated by the addition of mass, momentum, energy and species to a steady flow in an entropy and composition wave
... generator is presented. The transfer functions describing the multiple reflections of acoustic waves in an enclosed environment are derived. This analytical framework allows unambiguous identification and isolation of the experimental direct and indirect noise generated by the injection of helium, methane, argon or carbon dioxide into a flow duct. Experimental data show that entropic and compositional noise make a significant contribution to the overall pressure traces acquired in the entropy generator. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the isentropic modelling assumption is inadequate to capture the experimental behaviour, while the analytical model for non-isentropic nozzles successfully describes the direct and indirect noise transfer functions. The disregard for the compositional contribution and the unjustified use of the isentropic assumption can provide significantly inaccurate noise predictions. This work shows that compositional noise, as well as non-isentropicity in the system, should be considered in future thermoacoustic and combustion noise models.