Supplementary Materials from Eight-year periodical outbreaks of the train millipede

Keiko Niijima, Momoka Nii, Jin Yoshimura
Periodical cicadas are the only confirmed periodical animals with long life cycles. In Japan, however, 8-year periodicity had been suggested in a species of train millipedes that had frequently obstructed trains in the central mountainous region of Honshu, Japan. This species was identified as Parafontaria laminata armigera Verhoeff (Diplopoda: Xystodesmidae), which is endemic to Japan. We finally confirmed the 8-year periodicity of this millipede using detailed surveys of life histories over 8
more » ... fe histories over 8 years. Seven broods were recognized, with almost no overlaps in their distributions. We also report the historical outbreaks and train obstructions of this millipede during 1920–2016. This is the first confirmed case of periodical non-insect arthropods.
doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.13489467.v2 fatcat:pbhqxl6tobhe7bw72mtaxmhr6q