Host transcriptional responses and SARS-CoV-2 isolates from the nasopharyngeal samples of Bangladeshi COVID-19 patients
As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, fatality and cases of new infections are also increasing at an alarming rate. SARS-CoV-2 follows a highly variable course and it is becoming more evident that individual's immune system has a decisive influence on the progression of the disease. However, the detailed underlying molecular mechanisms of the SARS-CoV-2 mediate disease pathogenesis are largely unknown. Only a few host transcriptional responses in COVID-19 have been reported so far from the
... far from the Western world, but no such data has been generated from the South-Asian region yet to correlate the conjectured lower fatality around this part of the globe. In this context, we aimed to perform the transcriptomic profiling of the COVID-19 patients from Bangladesh along with the reporting of the SARS-CoV-2 isolates from these patients. Moreover, we performed a comparative analysis to demonstrate how differently the various SARS-CoV-2 infection systems are responding to the viral pathogen. We detected a unique missense mutation at 10329 position of ORF1ab gene, annotated to 3C like proteinase, which is found in 75% of our analyzed isolates; but is very rare globally. Upon the functional enrichment analyses of differentially modulated genes, we detected a similar host induced response reported earlier; this response was mainly mediated by the innate immune system, interferon stimulation, and upregulated cytokine expression etc. in the Bangladeshi patients. Surprisingly, we did not perceive the induction of apoptotic signaling, phagosome formation, antigen presentation and production, hypoxia response within these nasopharyngeal samples. Furthermore, while comparing with the other SARS-CoV-2 infection systems, we spotted that lung cells trigger the more versatile immune and cytokine signaling which was several folds higher compared to our reported nasopharyngeal samples. We also observed that lung cells did not express ACE2 in a very high amount as suspected, however, the nasopharyngeal cells are found overexpressing ACE2. But the amount of DPP4 expression within the nasal samples was significantly lower compared to the other cell types. Surprisingly, we observed that lung cells express a very high amount of integrins compared to the nasopharyngeal samples, which might suggest the putative reasons for an increased amount of viral infections in the lungs. From the network analysis, we got clues on the probable viral modulation for the overexpression of these integrins. Our data will provide valuable insights in developing potential studies to elucidate the roles of ethnicity effect on the viral pathogenesis, and incorporation of further data will enrich the search of an effective therapeutics.