The evolving forest regime and domestic actors: strategic or normative adaptation?

Lars Gulbrandsen
2003 Environmental Politics  
How have forest-related international environmental agreements (IEAs) affected domestic policy and forest owners in industrialised, forest-rich countries? This question is investigated by identifying and explaining the effects of IEAs on Norwegian forest policy and forestry. The analysis shows that international commitments and recommendations have had little effect on domestic forest policy. While environmental certification of forest owners by private initiative is in compliance with
more » ... onal recommendations and European criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management, competitiveness concerns and pressures from environmental organisations and the marketplace have been more important for this initiative than IEAs. Although environmental certification can be explained as strategic adaptation to market demands, this mechanism is dependent upon actors valuing and having internalised certain norms and principles. It is argued that IEAs have contributed to establish, strengthen and disseminate norms and principles regarding conservation of old-growth forests and biodiversity. The interplay between rational calculative and cognitive processes is thus important for understanding domestic adaptations to forest-related agreements.
doi:10.1080/09644010412331308204 fatcat:m3m4rvjgmnf5bfksvin5inbhtq