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Energy storage systems (ESSs) are critically important for the future of electric vehicles. Despite this, the safety and management of ESSs require improvement. Battery management systems (BMSs) are vital components in ESS systems for Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). One parameter that is included in the BMS is the state-of-charge (SoC) of the battery. SoC has become an active research area in recent years for battery electric vehicle (BEV) LIBs, yet there are some challenges: the LIBdoi:10.3390/en14113284 fatcat:w2kyybjdfjcsdmvgvqikpqzkb4