Tensor norms and the classical communication complexity of nonlocal quantum measurement
Proceedings of the thirty-seventh annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing - STOC '05
Nonlocality is at the heart of quantum information processing. In this paper we investigate the minimum amount of classical communication required in order to simulate a nonlocal quantum measurement. We derive general upper bounds, which in turn translate to systematic classical simulations of quantum communication protocols. As a concrete application, we prove that any quantum communication protocol with shared entanglement for computing a Boolean function can be simulated by a classical
... y a classical protocol whose cost does not depend on the amount of the shared entanglement. This implies that if the cost of communication is a constant, quantum and classical protocols, with shared entanglement and shared coins, respectively, compute the same class of functions. Furthermore, we describe a new class of efficient quantum communication protocols based on fast quantum algorithms. While some of them have efficient classical simulations by our method, others appear to be good candidates for separating quantum v.s. classical protocols, and quantum protocols with v.s. without shared entanglement. Yet another application is in the context of simulating quantum correlations using local hidden variable models augmented with classical communications. We give a constant cost, approximate simulation of quantum correlations when the number of correlated variables is a constant, while the dimension of the entanglement and the number of possible measurements can be arbitrary. Our upper bounds are expressed in terms of some tensor norms on the measurement operator. Those norms capture the nonlocality of bipartite operators in their own way and may be of independent interest and further applications.