Active query forwarding in sensor networks
Ad hoc networks
While sensor networks are going to be deployed in diverse application specific contexts, one unifying view is to treat them essentially as distributed databases. The simplest mechanism to obtain information from this kind of a database is to flood queries for named data within the network and obtain the relevant responses from sources. However, if the queries are (a) complex, (b) one-shot, and (c) for replicated data, this simple approach can be highly inefficient. In the context of
... ed sensor networks, alternative strategies need to be examined for such queries. We propose a novel and efficient mechanism for obtaining information in sensor networks which we refer to as ACtive QUery forwarding In sensoR nEtworks (ACQUIRE). The basic principle behind ACQUIRE is to consider the query as an active entity that is forwarded through the network (either randomly or in some directed manner) in search of the solution. ACQUIRE also incorporates a look-ahead parameter d in the following manner: intermediate nodes that handle the active query use information from all nodes within d hops in order to partially resolve the query. When the active query is fully resolved, a completed response is sent directly back to the querying node. We take a mathematical modelling approach in this paper to calculate the energy costs associated with ACQUIRE. The models permit us to characterize analytically the impact of critical parameters, and compare the performance of AC-QUIRE with respect to other schemes such as flooding-based querying (FBQ) and expanding ring search (ERS), in terms of energy usage, response latency and storage requirements. We show that with optimal parameter settings, depending on the update frequency, ACQUIRE obtains order of magnitude reduction over FBQ and potentially over 60-75% reduction over ERS (in highly dynamic environments and high query rates) in consumed energy. We show that these energy savings are provided in trade for increased response latency. The mathematical analysis is validated through extensive simulations.