The Relationship between Hyperinsulinemia, Hypertension and Progressive Renal Disease

F. A. El-Atat
2004 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology  
The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has risen dramatically in the past decade, mainly due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and both impaired glucose tolerance and hypertension are important contributors to rising rates of ESRD. Obesity, especially the visceral type, is associated with peripheral resistance to insulin actions and hyperinsulinemia, which predisposes to development of diabetes. A common genetic predisposition to insulin resistance and hypertension and
more » ... nd hypertension and the coexistence of these two disorders predisposes to premature atherosclerosis. A constellation of metabolic and cardiovascular derangements, which also includes dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, endothelial dysfunction, fibrinolytic and inflammatory abnormalities, left ventricular hypertrophy, microalbuminuria, and increased oxidative stress, is referred to as the cardiometabolic syndrome.
doi:10.1097/01.asn.0000133698.80390.37 pmid:15504934 fatcat:46pm2x7vwzftha6pr3tzritl3a